Japanese Demonstratives – KO SO A DO Kotoba – PlainJapanese | Lesson 31

We learned some before but we are going to learn new demonstratives!

a?�a??a?�a?� a?�a??a?�

Let’s get started

A�Japanese Demonstratives

This is the table which shows a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a??a?� demonstratives

A�japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba
The reason why they call a?�a??a?�a?�, as you can see, there are 4 series, and each of them has the same a??a��a??a??
at the beginning.
is for the thing.
for example,
this is a pen
is for the thing and person.
a?�a?�a?�a?Ya�?means that person
a?�a?Ya�?is the polite word of a??a??
this bag is mine
today’s new demonstratives are for the place and direction.
a?�a?� a??a?� a?�a??a?� a?�a?�
indicates the place.
indicates, the direction in a casual way.
is the same but in a polite way.
also, a?�series is new to learn.
These series indicate a thing that we do not know
a?�a�?a�?is for thing
it can be which, in English
Which is your bag?
a?�a?� is for person or thing
and it can be which/what
What company do you work for?
a?�a?� is for a place
Where is he?
a?�a??a??a�?a?�a??a��a�?both of them mean, where or which direction
Which one do you prefer?

let’s see the demonstratives for the place

So there are the speaker and listener.
a?�a?�indicates where the speaker is. I drew in green.
a??a?� indicates where the listener is. The blue one.
a?�a??a?� indicates a place distant from both speaker and listener. I drew in red.

japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba

When the speaker and listener are close each other,
a?�a?� indicates where both speaker and lister are.
a??a?� indicates the place where slightly distant from them.
a?�a??a?� indicates the place where is far away from them.
japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba

When the speaker does not know the place
we use a?�a?�
A�where is the exit?
japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba


japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba
Using this sentence pattern, you can state where a place, thing, or person is.
a??a��a?�a��a?? a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a��
The office is over there.
the telephone is there.
the classroom is here.
Mr. Tanaka is on the second floor.


A�japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba
a?�a?� indicates, where
so a?S?��??�a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a?�a?�
a?S?��??�a?�means toilet
so where is the toilet
a?�a??a��indicates which direction or where so
it means, Where is the station?
So the listener would say, a?�a??a??a?�a?�a��with pointing at the direction of the station
it means
It’s over there
a?�a?�a?�a??a�� is also used for asking the name of the country, company, school, or other place, or organization to which someone belongs
for example,
what school do you go to?
means what company do you work for?
so the listener can answer, a��a??a��a?�a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a??a?�a�� I work for google.
also means where is the school but we should be able to know which it means from the context or what topic we are talking about.


japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba
N1 can be company or country.
if N1 is country, N2 is made in that country
If N1 is a company, N2 is made by that company.
for example,
Where is this PC made?
It is made in Japan.
This is made by Ikea.

Published by Tomo - Plain Japanese

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