Japanese Demonstratives – KO SO A DO Kotoba – PlainJapanese | Lesson 31

We learned some before but we are going to learn new demonstratives!

a?�a??a?�a?� a?�a??a?�

Let’s get started

A�Japanese Demonstratives


This is the table which shows a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a??a?� demonstratives

A�japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba
The reason why they call a?�a??a?�a?�, as you can see, there are 4 series, and each of them has the same a??a��a??a??
at the beginning.
a?�a�?a�?a??a�?a�?a?�a�?a�?a?�a�?a�?
is for the thing.
for example,
a?�a�?a??a�?a??a��a?�a?�a��
this is a pen
a?�a?�a�?a??a?�a�?a?�a?�a�?a?�a?�
is for the thing and person.
a?�a?�a?�a?Ya�?means that person
a?�a?Ya�?is the polite word of a??a??
a?�a?�a?�a?�a��a??a�?a?Ya?�a?�a?�a?�a��
this bag is mine
today’s new demonstratives are for the place and direction.
a?�a?� a??a?� a?�a??a?� a?�a?�
indicates the place.
a?�a??a??a�?a??a??a??a�?a?�a??a??a�?a?�a??a??a�?
indicates, the direction in a casual way.
a?�a??a��a�?a??a??a��a�?a?�a??a��a�?a?�a??a��
is the same but in a polite way.
also, a?�series is new to learn.
These series indicate a thing that we do not know
a?�a�?a�?is for thing
it can be which, in English
a?�a�?a??a?�a??a?Ya?�a?�a?�a��a?�a?�a?�
Which is your bag?
a?�a?� is for person or thing
and it can be which/what
a?�a??a?Ya??a?�a?�a?sc�?a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a??a?�a?�i?Y
What company do you work for?
a?�a?� is for a place
a?�a�?a??a?�a?�a?�a?�a??a?�a?�i?Y
Where is he?
a?�a??a??a�?a?�a??a��a�?both of them mean, where or which direction
a?�a??a?Ya??a?�a??a??a??a??a??a?�a?�a?�i?Yor
a?�a??a?Ya??a?�a??a��a??a??a??a?�a?�a?�i?Y
Which one do you prefer?

let’s see the demonstratives for the place

So there are the speaker and listener.
a?�a?�indicates where the speaker is. I drew in green.
a??a?� indicates where the listener is. The blue one.
a?�a??a?� indicates a place distant from both speaker and listener. I drew in red.

japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba


When the speaker and listener are close each other,
a?�a?� indicates where both speaker and lister are.
a??a?� indicates the place where slightly distant from them.
a?�a??a?� indicates the place where is far away from them.
japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba

When the speaker does not know the place
we use a?�a?�
a?�a??a??a??a?�a?�a?�a?�a?�i?Y
A�where is the exit?
japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba

Na??Placea?�a?�

japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba
Using this sentence pattern, you can state where a place, thing, or person is.
a??a��a?�a��a?? a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a��
The office is over there.
a?�a��a�?a??a??a?�a?�a?�
the telephone is there.
?��a��a??a?�a?�a?�a?�a��
the classroom is here.
c��a?�a?�a��a??i?�a?sa?�a?�a��
Mr. Tanaka is on the second floor.

a?�a?�a�?a?�a??a��a�?interrogative.

A�japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba
a?�a?� indicates, where
so a?S?��??�a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a?�a?�
a?S?��??�a?�means toilet
a?S?��??�a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a?�a?�
so where is the toilet
a?�a??a��indicates which direction or where so
e��a??a?�a??a��a?�a?�a?�i?Y
it means, Where is the station?
So the listener would say, a?�a??a??a?�a?�a��with pointing at the direction of the station
it means
It’s over there
a?�a?�a?�a??a�� is also used for asking the name of the country, company, school, or other place, or organization to which someone belongs
for example,
a??a??a?�a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a?�a?�
means
what school do you go to?
a?sc�?a??a?�a??a��a?�a?�a?�
means what company do you work for?
so the listener can answer, a��a??a��a?�a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a??a?�a�� I work for google.
a??a??a?�a?�a??a?�a?�a?�a?�a?�
also means where is the school but we should be able to know which it means from the context or what topic we are talking about.

N1a?�N2

japanese demonstratives ko so a do kotoba
N1 can be company or country.
if N1 is country, N2 is made in that country
If N1 is a company, N2 is made by that company.
for example,
a?�a�?a??a?�a?�a?�PCa?�a?�a?�i?Y
Where is this PC made?
a?�a�?a??a�??�???�a?�PCa?�a?�a��
It is made in Japan.
a??a�?a??a?�a??a��a?�???a?�a?�a?�i?Y
a��a��a�?a?�???a?�a?�a��
This is made by Ikea.

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